Researchers at Yokohama City University in Japan created tiny human livers utilizing human stem cells. The rudimentary livers [which were transplanted into mice] grew, made human liver proteins, and metabolized drugs as human livers do. And while the liver buds, as they are called, did not turn into complete livers, the study represents an important step in developing methodologies for growing large, complex organs.
In a follow-up study, stem cells from teeth were found to provide a viable and stable repair mechanism for mandibular bone defects. Three years after the clinical trial was initiated, the bone is still functioning properly.